Physiology And Disorders Of The Basal Ganglia

Physiology And Disorders Of The Basal Ganglia
Order 5898234
These statements concern the physiology and disorders of the basal ganglia.
(a) The caudate nucleus, the putamen and globus pallidus are sources of major
motor tracts which descend to the spinal cord.
(b) The most numerous and important connections of the basal ganglia, apart
from their intrinsic connections, are with the cerebral cortex.
(c) There is a marked sensory loss in basal ganglia disorders.
*(d) Patients suffering from hemiballismus, due to a lesion of the sub-thalamus,
have a profound loss of balance.
*(e) High levels of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, are found in the caudate
nucleus of the basal ganglia.
124 The cerebellum is part of the CNS which forms a particularly prominent structure
in those vertebrates which have highly developed motor skills.
(a) Projection of proprioceptive and exteroceptive impulses from the limbs to the
cerebellum is predominantly ipsilateral.
(b) Direct electrical stimulation of the cerebellum can elicit complex sensations.
(c) Purkinje cells are the only neurones with efferent axons leaving the cerebellar
(d) The synaptic connections of Purkinje cell axons are all inhibitory.
(e) Direct electrical stimulation of the cerebellar cortex can give rise to discrete
muscle contractions or movements.
125 This question is concerned with the major tracts that originate in particular areas
of the brain and that descend the spinal cord to determine motor output:
(a) The axons of the majority of pyramidal tract neurones synapse directly with
spinal motoneurones.
(b) Complete section of the pyramids in the medulla results in a permanent loss
of precision in the performance of motor tasks.
(c) The vestibulospinal tract to the lumbar spinal cord controls extpnsor rather
than flexor motoneurone output.
(d) Most tectospinal tract neurones control motoneurones that are used to
achieve orientation of the head on the body.
(e) The rubrospinal tract has its major influence on axial and girdle musculature
that is used to maintain posture and equilibrium
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